The trace command works by taking advantage of the error messages generated by routers when a datagram exceeds its time-to-live (TTL) value.

The trace command starts by sending probe datagrams with a TTL value of one. This causes the first router to discard the probe datagram and send back an error message. The trace command sends several probes at each TTL level and displays the round-trip time for each.

The trace command sends out one probe at a time. Each outgoing packet may result in one or two error messages. A “time exceeded” error message indicates that an intermediate router has seen and discarded the probe. A “destination unreachable” error message indicates that the destination node has received the probe and discarded it because it could not deliver the packet. If the timer goes off before a response comes in, trace prints an asterisk (*)

The trace command terminates when the destination responds, when the maximum TTL is exceeded, or when the user interrupts the trace with the escape sequence. By default, to invoke the escape sequence, type Ctrl-^ X—by simultaneously pressing and releasing the Ctrl, Shift, and 6 keys, and then pressing the X key.

A Networker Blog


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